For a large collection of different puzzles on a single map, 25 Rooms is a pretty good option. Like the name says it features 25 rooms with more than two dozen puzzles to solve before the player can make it to the end of the map. With so many puzzles in one map, naturally, the earlier ones are a bit easy. But the later puzzles are some of the hardest you will find in any Minecraft map, so the difficulty is paced well if not a little harshly, and the map is very rewarding for players who are big puzzle fans.
The rules for 25 Rooms are simple. Play the map on Peaceful mode so you don’t run into any monsters while you’re playing. You could play with monsters, but they could destroy the course and kill you, leading to you respawning in strange locations. Do play in adventure mode though. You’ll still want to use food for health recovery to allow for some sense of realism at least. Be sure to set the render distance as high as you can, though around 12 chunks should cover most of the map and puzzles. This is a big map, but you should still be able to clear it in a couple of hours.